LORENTZ Solver Methods

All LORENTZ packages provide the choice of Boundary Element Method (BEM) or Finite Element Method (FEM) field solvers. BEM is often the preferred method for electric problems and precise calculations of fields in open regions. FEM often provides faster solutions for heavily saturated magnetic problems.
An additional advantage to having both solution methods is the ability to confirm the validity of models using two independent solvers based on entirely different mathematical formulations.
A Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) solver is available for applications requiring the analysis of high frequency electromagnetic fields.

Trajectory Solvers

All LORENTZ packages provide the choice of four different Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) solvers for trajectory computations:
  • Constant Step Runge-Kutta 4 (RK4)
  • Adaptive Runge-Kutta 5 (RK5)
  • Adaptive Runge-Kutta 853 (RK853)
  • Adaptive Bulirsch-Stoer
BEM Field Solver Symmetric model of a quadrupole magnet solved using BEM. No artificial boundary box or meshing of open regions is required. FEM Field Sovler Symmetric model of a quadrupole magnet solved using FEM. A boundary box to limit the model space is required, as is meshing of the entire simulation space.
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