FAQ Category Archives: Physics

How do I Load or Modify a Nonlinear Material?

In version 6.1 & 6.2 the menu Physics>Material Table brings up a small dialog box with options to Modify, Create, Delete, Assign or Inquire Materials. The Modify and Create options open up a Material Editor dialog box where you can choose the material property you wish to modify and (if they are characterized by a […]

How do I know whether to use conductivity, permittivity or both in a simulation?

1- Phasor mode In Phasor mode the dielectric constant is considered to be a complex number consisting: ε = εrεo + j * σ/ω where: εr = relative permittivity εo = permittivity of free space σ = electrical conductivity ω = angular frequency = 2πf In most cases, for most materials, either the real or […]

How do I use periodic conditions successfully?

When using periodic conditions, you should ensure that your model satisfies the following 3 conditions: Active geometry does not overlap when it is rotated into position (Overlapping active geometry gives non-physical results). Segments with periodic boundary conditions do not contain elements. These boundary conditions define areas where the material is continuous into the next periodic […]

When do I need periodic conditions?

All INTEGRATED software is designed to exploit periodic conditions in models. Using periodic conditions – force, torque, power, energy, flux linkage, and the magnetic fields are calculated as if the whole geometry is present. By reducing the number of unknowns you need to calculate, you can greatly reduce the time required for simulation. An example […]

How are nonlinear material files created?

Creating a nonlinear material file: With a standard text editor create a file in the program directory where the other material files (*.mtl) are located. If you are dealing with a program that does not have a material folder already then it is a good idea to create one. Create three columns of numbers using […]

How do Integrated Programs Handle Nonlinear (irreversible) Magnetic Materials?

Magnetic materials generally have a nonlinear and history dependent B-H magnetization characteristic, as illustrated in the generic hysteresis curve to the right. However, for practical purposes magnetic materials can usually be considered as one of two types: Red curve: ferromagnets (e.g. steels), paramagnets, and diamagnets Blue curve: permanent magnets The Material Editor screen capture to […]

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