# Archives: faq

## How do I Load or Modify a Nonlinear Material?

In version 6.1 & 6.2 the menu Physics>Material Table brings up a small dialog box with options to Modify, Create, Delete, Assign or Inquire Materials. The Modify and Create options open up a Material Editor dialog box where you can choose the material property you wish to modify and (if they are characterized by a […]

## How do I know whether to use conductivity, permittivity or both in a simulation?

1- Phasor mode In Phasor mode the dielectric constant is considered to be a complex number consisting: ε = εrεo + j * σ/ω where: εr = relative permittivity εo = permittivity of free space σ = electrical conductivity ω = angular frequency = 2πf In most cases, for most materials, either the real or […]

## How do I use periodic conditions successfully?

When using periodic conditions, you should ensure that your model satisfies the following 3 conditions: Active geometry does not overlap when it is rotated into position (Overlapping active geometry gives non-physical results). Segments with periodic boundary conditions do not contain elements. These boundary conditions define areas where the material is continuous into the next periodic […]

## When do I need periodic conditions?

All INTEGRATED software is designed to exploit periodic conditions in models. Using periodic conditions – force, torque, power, energy, flux linkage, and the magnetic fields are calculated as if the whole geometry is present. By reducing the number of unknowns you need to calculate, you can greatly reduce the time required for simulation. An example […]

## How are nonlinear material files created?

Creating a nonlinear material file: With a standard text editor create a file in the program directory where the other material files (*.mtl) are located. If you are dealing with a program that does not have a material folder already then it is a good idea to create one. Create three columns of numbers using […]

## How do Integrated Programs Handle Nonlinear (irreversible) Magnetic Materials?

Magnetic materials generally have a nonlinear and history dependent B-H magnetization characteristic, as illustrated in the generic hysteresis curve to the right. However, for practical purposes magnetic materials can usually be considered as one of two types: Red curve: ferromagnets (e.g. steels), paramagnets, and diamagnets Blue curve: permanent magnets The Material Editor screen capture to […]

## What are my choices to rotate, zoom, and pan to view my model?

These choices are described in Appendix 1.

## How can I view my model in a MS Terminal Server window?

From version 5.2 upwards IES is using OpenGL for rendering the model display area. This has had many benefits for providing better model and analysis display, however, OpenGL does require more than 256 colors. The MS Terminal Server window only uses 256 colors, hence, it will be very difficult to obtain meaningful displays. One option […]

## How are you sure of proper contact of two volumes in 3D programs?

Consider a simple example of a small cube placed over a big cube. If these two volumes are in proper contact, they would have an unique surface in common. In the Fig. 1a shown below, it appears that the two volumes are in proper contact, but they are not. The easiest way to verify whether […]

## How can I draw a model without overlapping surfaces?

Whether you import a model from a CAD package or draw it in IES software, it is important that the drawing be physically realistic. Many things that are easy to draw, or which may be drawn to facilitate manufacturing (e.g. a cylinder “force-fit” to a hole, being slightly larger than the hole it is being […]